Digital Media – Glossary of Terms (Term from B to C)

This post is a continuation of the previous digital media glossary posts.
To check the previous glossary list, click any of the below links:
Digital Media – Glossary of Terms (Term from A)

Also known as a web bug, 1 by 1 GIF, invisible GIF, and tracking pixel. It is a tiny imagere ferenced by a line of HTML or a block of JavaScript code embedded into a website or third party ad server to track activity. The image used is generally a single pixel that is delivered tothe web browser with HTML instructions that keep it from affecting the web site layout. It will typically include user information like cookies on the HTTP headers, and web site information on the query string. They are used to collect data for website and ad delivery analytics, and specific events such as a registration or conversion.


Behavioral Event 
A user initiated action which may include, but is not limited to: searches, content views, clicks,purchases, and form based information. They are generally anonymous and do not include personally identifiable information (PII).


Behavioral Targeting
Using previous online user activity (e.g., pages visited, content viewed, searches, clicks and purchases) to generate a segment which is used to match advertising creative to users(sometimes also called Behavioral Profiling, Interest based Advertising, or online behavioral advertising). It uses anonymous, non-PII data to improve the ad placement within the advertising system.


Below the Fold 
This is digital media specific terminology known only to specific ad placement. This is referred as the part of the webpage that can’t be seen without scrolling down.


A measure of bandwidth which indicates how much data is traveling from one place to another on a computer network. It’s usually expressed in kilo-bites per second (kbps) or megabits per second (Mbps). The bit rate of an audio or video stream indicates how much data must be transferred concurrently in order to properly receive the stream. Buffering can help mitigate variance in available bandwidth. Note that bit rate does not describe how long is takes to get from one part of the network to another, only how many bits can be transferred concurrently.


This is a web log that usually consists of discrete entries (posts) typically displayed in reverse chronological order so the most recent post appears first. The most well-known blogs are Masheable, Huffington Post and TechCrunch.


Bounce Rate 
It represents the percentage of visitors who enter a site and then quickly leave and not continue viewing other pages within the same site.


Branded Content Site
These are websites which contain content that is developed or curated by a brand to provide added consumer value such as entertainment or education. It is designed to build brand consideration and affinity, not sell a product or service. It is not a paid ad, sponsorship, or product placement.


It includes everything from: helping users connect a particular brand with a kind of service; a campaign with a particular brand; a positive feeling about a brand they may already know; a desire to buy a brand they may already know. To understanding branding, it requires extensive research and studying of how company and brand are evaluated. Whole section of branding is built around marketing major and even in MBA program. 

Section C

Memory used to temporarily store the most frequently requested content/files/pages in order 
to speed its delivery to the user. It can be local (i.e. on a browser) or on a network. In the case of local cache, most computers have both memory (RAM), and disk (hard drive) cache.


Cache Busting
The process by which sites or servers serve content or HTML in such a manner as to minimizeor prevent browsers or proxies from serving content from their cache. This forces the user orproxy to fetch a fresh copy for each request. Among other reasons, cache busting is used to provide a more accurate count of the number of requests from users.
Cache Ad Impression 
The delivery of an advertisement to a browser from local cache or a proxy server’s cache. When a user requests a page that contains a cached ad, the ad is obtained from the cache and displayed.


Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) 
A style sheet language used to describe the presentation of a document written in a markup language. It provides a more elegant alternative to straight HTML to quickly specify the look and feel of a single Web page or a group of multiple Web pages. You can check the website source to identify which CSS was used for which part of the website.

Click can denote several different things. It can be a metric that measures the reaction of a user to an Internet ad. In this context, there are three types of click: click-throughs, in unit clicks, and mouse-overs. It can be the opportunity for a user to download another file by clicking on an advertisement, as recorded by the server. It can be the result of a measurable interaction with an advertisement or key word that links to the advertiser’s intended Web site or another page or frame within the Web site. It can be a metric that measures the reaction of a user to linked editorial content.


Click Based Conversions 
This refers to the conversion action that resulted from a click on a campaign’s banner.


Click Fraud
This is a major type of internet advertising crime that occurs in pay per click online advertising when a person, automated script, or computer program imitates a legitimate user of a web browser clicking on an ad, for the purpose of generating a charge per click without having actual interest in the target of the ad’s link. An online advertising company can get high level of CPC resulting from click fraud. To avoid click fraud, it is important to keep an eye on the digital advertising CTR, CPC and click based conversion.
Click Through Rate (CTR)
A way to measure an online advertising campaign by the number of users that click on an ad/link. (CTR is measured by Clicks divided by Ad Impressions times 100 for the percentage representation. For example, if you had 500 clicks and ad impression was measured at 10,000 views, then your click through rate is 500 clicks/10,000 views times 100, which is calculated as 5.00%.)


Click Stream 
This is the electronic path a user takes while navigating from site to site, and from page to page within a site; A comprehensive body of data describing the sequence of activity between a user’s browser and any other Internet resource, such as a Web site or third party ad server. Google Analytics program utilizes click stream and cookies to track how a potential buyer buys your products or visit your website. It has been previously used to identify and improve the consumer decision journey in the purchasing behavior and behavioral targeting subject of many marketing topics.

Click Within

Similar to click down or click. But more commonly, click within are ads that allow the user to“drill down” and click, while remaining in the advertisement, not leaving the site on which they are residing.

Click Stream Data

A Click Stream is the recording of what a computer user clicks on while web browsing. As the user clicks anywhere in the webpage or application, the action is logged on a client or inside the web server, as well as possibly the web browser and ad servers. Click Stream data analysis can be used to create a user profile that aids in understanding the types of people that visit a company’s website, or predict whether a customer is likely to purchase from an e-commerce website.


It can refer to either a computer or a software program running on a computer that contacts a server over a network. A client typically establishes connections to servers in response to activities or configurations made by a human operator.


Client Side 
Client side refers to activities taking place on the client as opposed to on the server.


Client Initiated Ad Impression
This is one of the two most common methods used for ad counting. Ad content is delivered to the user via two methods server initiated and client initiated. Client initiated ad counting relies on the user’s browser for making requests, formatting and re-directing content. For organizations using a client-initiated ad counting method, counting should occur at the publisher’s ad server or third party ad server, subsequent to the ad request, or later, in the process.


Co-Op Advertising 
Co-op Advertising refers to the creation of advertisements by one party (usually retailers) that include the specific mention of a second party (usually manufacturers) where the second party will pay some or all of the advertising cost. For example, a hair salon that mentions specific hair care products in their copy, in order to receive some form of payment from the product manufacturer.


Short for compressor/de-compressor. These are computer algorithms that are used to compress the size of audio, video, and image files for streaming over a data network or storage on a computer. Apple’s QuickTime, Microsoft’s Windows Media Video, and MP3 are common examples. 


Common Gateway Interface (CGI) script
CGI scripts are used to allow a user to pass data to a Web server, most commonly in a Web-based form.Specifically used with forms such as pull down menus or text entry areas with an accompanying submit button. The input from the form is then processed by the script on a remote Web server.

Companion Ads

Both Linear and Non-linear Video ad products have the option of pairing their core video ad product with what is commonly referred to as companion ads. Commonly text, display ads, rich media, or skins that wrap around the video experience, can run alongside either or both the video or ad content. The primary purpose of the Companion Ad product is to offer sustained visibility of the sponsor throughout the video content experience. Companion Ads may offer click-through interactivity and rich media experiences such as expansion of the ad for further engagement opportunities. Companion ads were created recently to improve advertising media.
Content Channel 
A term networks and portals use to describe aggregate content that is similar in nature. For example, a women’s interest channel will be a collection of websites having to do with content designed to be of interest to women.
Content Distribution Network (CDN) 
This is a service that hosts online assets and provides content management via servers located around the globe to reduce the latency of downloads to users. CDN is often used in various web video and music hosting websites. It has utilized by many torrent websites, including isoHunt and

Content Integration

This is simply the advertising woven into editorial content or placed in a contextual envelope. This is also known as“Web advertorial”.

Management System (CMS)
This system brings the publisher’s content–not the ads–to their website and allows for editing and modifying of that content. WordPress and several other websites utilize CMS to effectively built massive content in short period of time.


It is the content surrounding an ad. Context will ask for the description of the advertisement.

Contextual Ads

Ads that are matched to keywords extracted from content, allowing advertisers to leverage existing keyboard based paid search campaigns and gain access to a larger audience.


Conversion Path Optimization
An advertising campaign designed to improve conversion rates on a website. It involves the live testing of landing page designs and page elements in real-time to help determine the path and page that brings the most users completely through the conversion process to take the desired action.


Conversion Pixel 
A specific type of web beacon that is triggered to indicate that a user has successfully completed a specific action such as a purchase or registration. This user action is considered a conversion.


Conversion Rate
Conversion rate is the percentage of users who complete a desired action (e.g., purchase or registration) compared to all users who were exposed to an online ad. Conversion rate is one of the most important rates in e-commerce websites since analyzing conversion rate helps identify which advertising medium or ads are most effective in increasing future sales.


A string of text sent from a web server to a user’s browser that the browser is be expected to send back to the web server in subsequent interactions. It has a few core attributes the cookie value, the domain and path within which it is valid, and the cookie expiry. There are other attributes as well that limit the cookie to HTTPS only transactions, or hide it from JavaScript. The domain and path define the scope of the cookie they tell the browser that cookies should only be sent back to the server for the given domain and path. Those that do not have a specific expiration date and time are automatically deleted when the web browser is next closed. Those with a set expiry time are considered persistent cookies, while cookies without set expiry times are considered session cookies. In online advertising, cookies generally store a unique identifier, and may contain information like what ads were recently seen (for frequency capping), when the cookie was created (to discover short duration identities), and other simple attributes. Cookie tracking has been hot privacy issue in both Google and Yahoo ads as it tracks user behaviors. Many anti-cookie program has been built. Because of high level of Anti-Cookie sentiment, many website now tell their web visitors to agree on “cookie tracking”.


Cost Per Action (CPA) 
Cost of advertising based on a visitor taking some specifically defined action in response to an ad. Examples of “Actions” include such things as completing a sales transaction, or filling out a form.


Cost Per Clicks (CPC) 
CPC is an online pricing model where advertisers are only charged for impressions that users click on. CPC is often mentioned with search engine optimization (SEO) or search engine marketing (SEM).


Cost Per Customer (Cost of Acquiring a Customer)
It is the cost an advertiser pays to acquire a customer.


Cost Per Lead (CPL)
Cost of advertising based on the number of database files (leads) received

Cost Per Order (CPO)
Cost of advertising based on the number of orders received. Also called Cost per Transaction.


Cost Per Sale (CPS)
The advertiser’s cost to generate one sales transaction. If this is being used in conjunction with a media buy, a cookie can be offered on the content site and read on the advertiser’s site after the successful completion of an online sale.


CPTM (Cost Per Targeted Thousand Impression) 
Implying that the audience one is trying to reach is defined by particular demographics or other specific characteristics, such as male golfers age 18 – 25. The difference between CPM and CPTM is that CPM is for gross impressions, while CPTM is for targeted impressions. (CPM is for non-specific impression, CPTM is specific impressions)


Cost Per Thousand (CPM)
This is one of the most used media terms describing the cost of 1,000 impressions. For example, a web site that charges $2,000 per ad and reports 100,000 impressions has a CPM of $20 ($2,000 divided by 100).


Cost Per Unique Visitor
Total cost of the placement or application, divided by the number of unique visitors.


Crawler is a software program which visits web pages in a methodical, automated way. This process is called “Web Crawling” or “Spidering”, and the resulting data is used for various purposes, including building indexes for search engines, validating that ads are being displayed in the appropriate context, and detecting malicious code on compromised web servers. Many web crawlers will politely identify themselves via their user agent string, which provides a reliable way of excluding a significant amount of non-human traffic from advertising metrics. Google uses web crawler to map out all of their websites and contents, including keywords, images, tags, and many other information.


Creative Assets
Creative assets refer to any digital elements used for marketing and advertising on the internet.

Creative Retargeting
This is a method that enables advertisers to show an ad specifically to visitors that previously were exposed to or interacted with the advertisers’ creative.


Cross Platform 
Cross platform refers to the the same content, and usually the same campaign running across that publisher’s multi platform offering.


Cross-Site Advertiser Analytics 
Software or services that allow an advertiser to optimize and audit the delivery of creative content on pre-purchased publisher inventory. Data can range from numbers of pages visited, to content visited, to purchases made by a particular user. Such data is used to surmise future habits of user or best placement for a particular advertiser based on success.


Cross-Site Analytics 
Statistics that span multiple websites. In the interactive advertising industry, there ware two main consumers for cross-site analytics – large publishers, who want to understand traffic behavior over multiple properties, and advertisers, who want to understand inventory before a campaign and success metrics afterwards.


Cross-Site Publisher Analytics
Services that provide normative metrics about and estimates of multiple publishers’ inventory.

Taking a task that would conventionally be performed by a contractor or employee and turning it over to a typically large, undefined group of people via an open call for responses. The best example of successful crowd sourcing is Kickstarter campaign.


Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
CRM is the set of business practices that guide a company’s interactions with current and future customers in all areas, from sales, marketing, and loyalty programs, to customer service, and technical support.
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